Here is this monstrosity:
According to all known aircraft, honey cannot fly. The wings are too small to get oil from a small body on the ground. Of course, bees don't care about flying honey. Yellow, Black Yellow, Black Yellow, Black Yellow, Black Ooh, Black and Yellow! Let me shake a little. Barry! Breakfast is ready! Ooming! Second off. Hello, Barry? - Friend - Do you think this is happening? - I don't understand. Keskinler. Use the ladder. Your father will pay them well. Unfortunately, I saw a happy diploma. You're very proud, son. Good bulletins, all of them. Very proud. Today! Something's happening here. - It's time to get out of trouble. - Ah! Me! - the waves! 118 000. - Yes! Barry, I told you you didn't go home! - Friend - Barry. - Is this a waste of jelly? - Special day packages, graduates. I never thought about it. School for three days and three years. They are aliens. Three-day college. I came this day and I'm glad I can forget. You're back. Hey, Barry. - Artie, grows beef? That sounds good. Listen to Frankie? Yes - are you happy? - no. Everyone knows that man's song is dead. Don't waste your squirrel. The hair is warm. I think it's broken. I like the landscape, including the landscape. So we don't have to take a vacation. Very complicated child ... in this case. - Men, we are men today. - What? - bee. Amine! Hallelujah! Students, educational institutions, special lovers, welcome to Dean Buzzwell. Welcome, New Oity Sales Students ... ... 9:15. This closes the ceremony. Work at Honex Industries! Need this time? I heard this tendency. Instructions We go here. Always be careful and careful. - I want to know what happened. Little fear. Welcome to Honex, Honesco is a part and part of the Hexagon Group. This! Wow, we know, like darling, to live for some time to work. Dear feet, we start when the strongest pollen in the basket is absorbed. The secret above fixes a sudden color of incense and changes the sweet aroma of sweet master and bright gold. - This girl is sexy. - Our relatives! - Is that it? Yes, we are all brothers. "Okay," Honexen always tried to cure all aspects of the uterus. Wild insects are testing new helmet technology. - What do you think they do? - This is not enough. This is the final step, Krelman. - What are you doing - Take some honey after the liquid. Millions of people do not want to save us. Who works for Krelman? Of course. Most of the work is a little darling. But be careful, but when everything is done it means there are many. But be careful because they remain in your workplace, to choose the rest of your life. Work for the rest of your life. What's the difference? We would be happy to know that honey as a species is not yet 27 million years old. Why would you die? Try. Wow! And I blow my head! - What's the difference? Or how do you say that? Unlimited work? This is a complete choice you must make. Now I have to make a decision in life. But Adam, how did they tell you? Why Ask We are new housewives. We manage communities in the world. Do you think everyone works here? What are some examples? I don't know you know what I'm talking about. Clean the door. Your Royal Force Action Approach. Wait a moment Think about it. - Poland now! Wow: You never saw it. They know what happened in blue. Yes, but some did not return. - Athletes! - Athlete! You are great! You are a giant monster! You are excited in heaven! Like! Like! - What? Premature day. Outside, who knows who it is. You can't decide to become Jock Pollock. You must be a scientist.To
this day, I have no friends, in the morning, up to six kilometers from the height of the sun. "A couple of miles, right?" Barry! You have water, but you can not solve it - maybe I can! Doors 9. Do you think? Are you moving forward with a look of 0900? Father, are you surprised to solve the problem of interest? There are many probabilities - but you are the only one. Are you looking for the same thing every day? Sunan said some of you say that you can write and write. You know, most articles do not have a mask. Do you think you are a doll? This is a bad thing for interesting people. His son Jet is not sure how to hear! Success is sometimes very happy - I do not like a good time. Unhealthy you are great, our son has seen him! Save - no one tells me! Wait until you receive the letter. Now I can say something. I'm a trumpet! Celebrate and celebrate our MAC! Maybe I want to take my chest. Pregnant name for a daughter with my wife calls her son and everyone! I'm proud to work! Today is today Good things have disappeared, Rengo, get to the table, take me ... - Still? - Leave two minutes! One of them is your ability! Page - Kasbar - The choice of the party is a bicycle! Wow! Long or Blue Yes! I wanted the first day! We are ready! Choose - first? What do you want to do? Is it bathing, your reason is not - maybe Kotram did? - You must be active. Unfortunately, the Kremlin has closed. The guard is always open, criminals, is a baby? You need dead dead, two dead, he dies from the brush. He died in life! Good Hexen, Kid, Binary, Lot, Stairway, Soundtrack, Hybrid Inspector, Glass Insulator Glass, Troubleshooting, Surgical Officer, Barry, are you okay? Read more! We have an accident ... what have you got? Where are you now going now Where am I here - now! I canceled two things. Are you crazy about the challenge If people still feel good today, they copy the department. My friend, see, does not appear without a newborn Limit your cabin. Know your destiny, right? Just start here - please - Well, now it will be sent and if you know that the badge is worse, it can be possible, always, hockey, dog, beer and bat. We also have parallel parallel reports. Murphy will come home to fight cricket! - This is a terrible reminder from the beginning, the number of numbers is, people can not say! Ok, start! Sounds, learning, sounds! Sounds, learning, sounds! Sounds, learning, sounds! Black and Sweet Happy Day! Are you ready? Yes, what's wrong - Anne. I see the Pact for Dryness - Prosthesis. Do not forget to forget me from the judge. Make sure that! All the hearts are on the floor! Wow! I'm out, I do not think it's happening. All blue, do not hesitate to me! Hi, good! Wow! Floors! This blue nose grows with a glance It starts, holds 30 degrees! 30 degrees, it's time to close the carpet, it's a small bomb. Here's a sweet cloth for water! Have you already booked? No, I'm here, my dear. Maybe he can get it. You know, that's a surprise. It's a dance, why are you doing it? It appears More flowers, more pink, more fresh water, more love for us, if you are interested, I have a very shiny color, more needs?Nobody cry for children! It's like rock Do not think this flower. - I said - you know. What is correct? Of course, when you eat you start earning! Yowser! There are many There are no cars! - Things! - I am! - Hey, collect. - Here! Eat me Nobody goes. Otherwise it will not appear. Stop! You do it! Styles, mom! What do you do here ... disaster here is here. I want to go home Rain is not saying Rain is not saying Rain is not saying Me Me Go animals Hello, can you close the window? Hello, can you close the window? Check the test. I changed the track If you see it, it happens. Yes Yes. Many people. Not at all It's time this time. It's time This time! This time! ... beautiful! It's great to breathe. My favorite art is the 10 best films. What is the Star Wars number? Yes, I do these things. It is not surprising to do that. Valea. When I leave my work, I can not believe what I have said. The sun is there Perhaps this is the way. I could not remember the sun, the Earth and the floor 75. I am hot. First, I'm the only one. Wait! Bee! Stop. These shoes are cool. Stay tuned and lose! You know you are suffering! I'm afraid! Why is your life less than your life? Why is my life less than my life? What I love your vision in everyone's life. You do not know what's going on. Crazy! OK, small No music It's the effect Enter the brochure. I take my face off. Do your special skills. This is a unique technique. That's right. Vanis. Thank you. - Vanessa, next week? I'm growing up - Yes, yes. What do you know? - Give it to your partner. To pay - You think you have enough calories. To pay I have said something. He saved my life. I have said something. Well, all. This is a problem. This animal is correct. You do not need to tell anyone. I do not think I've ever done it. It is not. Welcome! No, yes. Do not do this I do not know how to start. - Do you love Jazz? No, that's not a good thing. Look! Stupid words! Welcome! Sad - You said - Yes, I know. I'm guilty. No, that's not a good thing. Conditions Mo, but I did not think of sleeping. I got confused. I was very impressed. I said, cut it! I did it, but I did, but everyone tried to kill me. But if you do not ... Thank you. I grew up It's great. - Death. - Yes. I told you In my speech! I'm grateful. I'll go now. Wait! How did you learn - Who? Talk I love you Mother, Father, Heart. They bought it. - Very good. - Yes. This is good. If we do not smell, we will tell you where we cover it. Who ... you ... what is it? - Why? I do not know. I said ... I do not know. Ooffee? I do not leave you This is not a problem. It's two minutes. - Coffee - I hate shipping. - Do not let people! - I want a cup. Hello, do you have a cake cake? - No. Small No, I'm not. - Oh! I have to stop small micrograms. No - These soldiers are not appropriate. You are too big! I do not know, you know anything about clothing. Is it right? No, Madison was at Valentine's Airport. They finally arrived. They have their church. The wedding started He said: "What's this?" "I do not know what I do, but what do they do, do not I? I do not know how to act, I want to help the interview, but I can not do anything." "I love flowers directly". the new queen has decided to improve the same theme ... you see ... I know, sheep, yes, I'm a turtle!Unfortunately, this is not possible. If I have, I can live. Of course you can take it with me, this is a stone - please! Yeah, well, then ... I'm with you. or not. Okay, Berry and you ... for the first time, but ... but I can not. You came in all these ways. We can strive, we can drown and be courageous. Harmony is strange! This is my best life, the best time my people do not believe! Talk Man Plaster Big and Page Daily is a great animal. The people are naked. "Do you want to kill your body like a TV?" - Some people but there is no one here. You made me, and I'm happy to see what you want to see. Your own experience is that you can now choose a job and become a permanent business owner. I got good luck, do not worry about yourself, you're killing your parents! - No, no, or are you crying? I do not like eight hours of fans and I know everything that I do not know, not much ... it's not the law. You should not interfere in your thoughts. Vanessa name is very good and inspiring! Someone! Fluoride's Day! We have no history with the help of Washington and M-80 officials, walk along the road, talk to those who attacked our home! Pearl! I saved my life! And he knows I've lost it! This dog is not yet complete! It's called compression, beautiful! And eat what you did not eat. No, meat, leaves, and tell me, I have no one! We have it and we have it! Yes, but who can help me? there is no time. Tell me what you think of Mac Man, thinking is an idea. This is a shadow in the pool. Do you know what is the problem? Have I started thinking? So how do you do it? Three days! Do you think of your life? What is life in your life? There is no need to worry! Hale will give you a sweet reward Does your dad talk to you about Martin, talk to him? Berry, I'm talking to you! Yes I do. Look at Venezuela for a long time! - We are still here. I'm telling you to tell if. No, because I will not listen to you. I'm not saying, unfortunately, I do not want to confuse my head - where are you going? Can a girl solve this problem? God, I hope they get sick. Every year there are powders in the gallon? Now everyone in the gallery dreams of selling flowers! On the floor, near the flowers, fun. Was not this play alone? Do you know where you are going? This is important, because I do not want to go anywhere. She looks strong, she likes, she looks at me OK, now it is your turn. Can You Run Television Only? It is a disease that is not suitable for you. He is great, great. And Gongo Beas! We hope you want to cut everything. We hope this works. Usually we like it. So you should look at your mind, look for walls, speed up, write letters, and wash. What to eat: Money, jealousy, pools Good friends It is a problem that is not allowed. Come on, you're crazy! What is the use of a serpent? So you know we have 10 pages as we actually know the fifth range. "I've lost my family from Italy, but I'm sure the name is automated, Golden Voice is a great sign for the players of particular time." Eat, not enough, yes, you know ... reducing everything and this is the problem! Hot, cold, crying, filled! Hard, Barry I do not know! To go to school, go to the hospital! All this with us!I understand. I'm thinking about it, he's that great friend, who needs to hand him over to him. You took the baby away! What I know! I can tell you, start talking! Where do you get the best stuff? I have not understood who your friend is. What we need now is! Now you're so scared! Mom, use the knife! You are my grandmother, my grandmother, Ignacio! Where is honey? tell me! Growing honey is good! All right! What happened here? These people look like these people do not know. Now I can not find a second place! And now you're going to die, I'm dead? They do a large company looking at honey. Unfortunately, money, everything is corrupt, I sweep it! I want to run - you? You're really dying, hey, what's wrong with him? Oh, well - the speaker! The Third Challenge! - The Leal Cup? Welcome! Call: This is your only choice, bee! Why clean a dog? What should you do with others? Shut the nose up the window! NP News in Washington, It's Oasis Castle But I'm Dying! - Bee! Moses' money! You can ask something. - Shape, crying, dark red and pearls? Ah, shining eyes see the blood that drives it, I think it's expensive. 20 minutes. - We're born. They are a couple. The friend of Mopin is not us. What if you have a problem? You see, you have a problem. No one likes us, but he will be gone. See your teeth, smoke, smell! At least you are in the world. Compare girls who are selling, crawling and surfing the Internet. The rings do not like your teeth, take me! Musculoskeletal exit! To contact you, Dibora! Rabbi! Moscow! I know it's all there is. IMPORTANCE: How do you shape yourself? We put cats in boxes and give us huge returns. Beautiful girl like oil. PINKD - Look at the new drum baby. You're looking for Thomas 3000! A 90-minute semiconductor for smoking. Twice, Nicotine, all the tears affect some of them. They're honey to make money. "I am the one who produces honey"! Did you do it well? Yes, it took a long time. Howard launches a fake wall? We went here. We do not have an option. Well, is this your queen? Train this man! The Challenge: This Stubborn Queen! No, they are hundreds! Honey, take our honey! It's too! Well, Barry, are people using humans honey? This is a rumor, is it a lie? This is a false doctrine. Here is a clear picture. How did he get involved? What do the people say about her? - Call that guy? There's your daughter's daughter to go! Learn more about Berry! We are not - you need it. Where the Bird Flying! I will only play in San Antonio Club. The whole night was slow. Do you want to do what your life is, Barry? I want to do this in my life. Everyone works more than bananas. Father, when I stand, I will do a lot. I remember. What is honey? We have two cats a year. Basque, without any reason. Even if that is true, what happens? They really did suffer. Sennomita: SEZ! The eyes are often frightening. The bad men of my assassin have only one place. The fifth buy price is the only one. No more hours left! Take the time off an anchor with storm and Bob Bob on your table and books - Good morning. Bob Amber and Janet Ogun. Bry Benson, in Trinidad's state, blames others. That night, Dobar Logarith King Lemmon, we have three parents in this new book to speak this week for six days this week.When you present the inspections, you know that Larry is the world's king. This is a popular name. Next week ... looks like a colorful, swaying show and the following week ... ... Sunblock guests are on the floor even if you are hungry, scared to hear from them next week or more early. Jewish parents, irrespective of industrial power, are carbonated. When the tennis attack attacks! You can borrow it. 81 years old Sander is the key! We don't know what. This is the real grant. Of course it is. This is helping people. - Be careful. "Hi now." Timberland licked a few hundred meters and I thought it was good. When we hear, let's talk to you, is it true that our yogurt is? Why are you so sad? The man is very useful here, as ... is it a sugar dress? Isn't it just because you can support it? Because goodness gives you proof that the flower is a flower. It's good, ours, ours, think of it! Remember that there is another activity. It's good when you want to get out How many people work, can't say "women at home!" Metropolitan Manhattan's wonderful city with respect for its king who is easy to talk about the world, the story of which Barry, I think a good majority of the working day is preliminary. "And if I don't have the money? And if not, I don't think Bumbleton is the most important one because it is there, (4) 475 eighty five today, Barry V. Bayson feeds five groups of Cicero Springer fuel we want the world wants. .. Trade is the easiest DD Cicero said that for the first time men and women of childbearing age The birth of the Bible is not a fertility on the farm, and I think I have the right to receive natural benefits and environment if you live in Cicero on earth , you have to think about it, we only know another place, the Lord or Mother or C. This is not a normal balance, thousands are important to me, this is important for everyone We hope you can see what is happening to our children , and the most important of them I want this article first statement Nicholas Vandherda, dear and wonderful companion hia I think you know that the person and the care are clear? Of course, this does not empty our lives. Zombies do not recognize, this is a big probe parXhjism, the name? Liotta Emma may remember the weapon 27 years in 2005. I look back and I'm glad you are satisfied with the money. what is that mean Is this wrong? No activity, but what are you doing? No need to bake bread and bedding. Today I'm scared! Well, but not bad! Why can't he go home because something is wrong? These complaints! Think! Don't order! Hello, I'm talking! "Tell me!" "He Liotta give up!" I mean if life is good. I think the judges are on our website. Do you find something good? I'm a flower. Yes, it's not good for a good team! Hello Ken! Yes i don't think you are No, it's too late. I'm working. But ... rock. I miss some things Barry. Success. Don't pay. Time. News. I heard that you are a tennis player. You can't play a lot. The head is very irritated. I always say here. Look, Ken, Y Barry is not a smart food. But a wise food Do you think I'm doing something? I know it's hard to work. We see it. Beer works 100%. But we all know. That is my problem Ken, I'm Barry I hope everything will be fine I want to see black hair please. Do you know? I play in teenage Pete - Italia Waggau. Have many pages. Did you forget my eternal life? Thank you. I like it! I think here! I speak to Koiffeur. Do you like the smell of birds? No, you know I'm hot! It is very easy! I have a problem! Yes! - If not, what? My mother, you're stupid! Lost food, Gel door! Kenneth! What are you doing? I know I need something sweet! I don't want this! We must talk! They are not strong children! I have known him for a long time! How long are the things in life? No, but elsewhere, they enjoy it. And you are one of them! Great! When it was cold, he said: "My father felt fun. Ken and I knew the bed. I knew everything I knew. I always knew I was scared and I couldn't. You see some events. "Barry Benson. We want to be a famous president. You know that you are one of the best lawyers ... Yes, Lehton. You know. Don't forget what you are doing. How do - affect? A little bias can be lost. Benson Bee what you want Do you have friends Are you a friend, are you a good friend? Last minute ... something ... I saw all, not the queen - Barry ... - Yes, I told you that you were wrong. Benson. He was buried in his treasure. You must take this man! Download Taqbbitx - Roundrii !! All friends! Want to see! I'm here to receive orders! Don't order! May the Almighty judge your veins! animal! They abandoned their feet silently. I saidInvite your partner: You are in different ways. I want to die I want to kill myself. She met her first blue restaurant. Do you have a picture like someone else's water? Let me know that Adlineline ... all ... well! Actually, you're sick. Do you think it's the worst world? As we help ourselves, I do not know that I understand it is a bottle. This is the price, I do not like it! Can you take pictures of your members? Do not smoke - young smokers. I do not say fast cigarettes, however, you have to smoke. Toga! Where is our heart Go to the place where I change my clothes. Income and loss of income and losses. And are you kids if you can join the group? That does not tell the truth How much is wrong? They say yes to buy or review your location. It's over! Mr Flemish, you are a cork to see Montomium, but you see! A good example. There is no evidence of smoking. Your responsibility Is not one that is a threat to security? That means young people do not like it. You will be informed that Bangla is "natural" for us. Is it true that Mike is a slave? What are we doing? For girls and girls in competition! Free Free Free Free Free Free Free Free Free Free Free Free Free Picker. Venezuela, I did it! I know what to do! ? ?. I'm sorry, you know what that means? Mikey is in Mickey. How many things have the true nature of the nature of things. Sorry, what is the cost to prepare? Is it worse than you? What do you want from my father, Ralph Lauren, Captain Montgomery? What do you think? 27 years ago, thank you for the first time for your success. So you have to start treasures to get the treasury. Get out of the car We know we're right. I can not afford it, it's been fine for a while. Foolishness is not healthier than ever ... and a new destruction. This contact, the juice, is our heart and heart. He wants to hide everything. Choose the things that are still found. Change it! What's going to happen now Hello! We're ready to drink! Approve and clarify map description and criticism. Here's a gift at home where I know how to get into Antonio and Cricket, as I know. At least once I heard my life, the best job in the world is my job. The new research book is my new job, I can, but now ... do not forget me. Fortunately, I think my life will be better! It is very difficult to leave. Is it "you can ask?" You have half of the existing community facilities, do you think? You know I'm going to killAnd the bees? I still believe that these bees do nothing that affects car taxes. Just flowers. All you need is fruits, vegetables, bees. Here's a SAT test. Remove something that can attack the animals. ... who is a man If he is released, everyone can go south. This is my crime. What about suicide? Because it's "I want the best". - He was killed twice. Shortly thereafter. Berry ... I'm sorry, I understand the will. I want to talk to my mouth. Vanessa? Vanessa? Travel Passland Rose where is the last trip and why? She is a member of the Sunday, because all the flowers died. I saw her recently. Vanessa, continue. I do not want to do that. I know I'm not alone. Rose Maaver contest is not available Other stomach pressures. Mawar? Mawar! Vanessa! Mawar? Is that so? - Flowers! - There are flowers, bees, pollen! I know the last time. No. Do you have a full-time job? Can you cut it? Barry! Okay, I made a big mistake. Everything is incredible, my breasts. Yes, it is. I have to connect the color to change the devastated world. I am serious, completely independent. I think you can limit it. However, in my opinion, in my opinion. I do not want to hear! Traditional culture is also a series of dogs. I know bees, grass and flowers in the garden. What we do is what we do not do. - I - iParc - Yes! It's a flower. - God! - the whole country! Rasa, Pasadena, California, does not fit. Only flowers, biscuits and socks. Improving security. I am Vanessa Bloom, the idea of ??FTD. The public contribution is good. Mom is strong. Thanks This is a gift. When I was young, I was thriving. And ask the girls and my friends! Yes, I understand. - They live - I think I'm a judge. Friends went to sleep. - It's a good story. - He came to Marshal. Break all the walls! Look what the boy / girl is. No, what are you doing? Finally, the traffic was bad ... it's not bad. This is not the case when you broadcast. Help her! Protection - do you have a collection of animals? - Yes, should I have shoes? - Weaknesses in our hands. That's our part. I know it's fine. It's a good trip, many members have to do if you're happy. Do we know each other well? These are many members! I think it works. I have to work. Journalist and tourist - Scott Scott. New York is bad. Come in for an hour. Barry, without water, cut flowers. Failure. I tell you when I woke up. Be careful. Want to help ice cream? We recommend talking about the nose that affects the treatment of the hair. Come on, this is the real situation. - Praise? "Just bees!" Do not be afraid of what you are doing? I am a lawyer - who is a lawyer? Go away. Oh, boy. They are good tourists. Your employer, Vanessa Bloom, is 24 years old. I still think I said in the bedroom. Soon! Who's here? Mystery, threatening systems and drinking problems. They do not know the hard way! - Is this a joke? - Flight JFK 356. It's important for the balance to work with Vanessa Bloom. I am a consultant in New York. Where are the senders? He lost and worked together. What experience does this camera have in the room? And what? Barry Benson. Honey moon? Now, Vanessa is very expensive. It was a terrible and incredible machine. I can not fly in the air. Why John Travolta? - To go! Our goal is electricity. This employee was surprised. At the end of the airport, John Kennedy is a supplier of opportunities. Benson Barry ... Barry! mBut is it not just hope? The system never does. Small children ... millions of people? "Weight and weight are not very good." - Take the air! Dhai. - Continue. We live. Maybe if you work secretly. Many dogs perform a number of tasks that perform different functions. But I told you this little thing. If you are good, there are many differences. More than we know. for all of us. Therefore, I would like to do this. Name anonymous: it's emperor! We're not cool. We left our friends. Two yellow! - Hey! Area, low stop. Forget it. It is hard. Name: Barry Bie, why? Wait, I think we're still in the car. - Of course, it helps. Now! So I leave, I can't afford it. Excuse me, all! Get out! Get out! This is the only way we can do us. Using Wings! Don't cry. I never said it! Many of them have problems. It's hard to focus on music in this volume! It is not like that. Nope! I can't do that! Vanessa, give her differently. You should be fine! Get rid of it. Get rid of it. Lost gone gone gone missing Stop! Why? This is my step. How to buy? I don't know well. Benson, happy colors? Most food! They are colleagues. - yellow. Non-Title: Hey, you get the form Topfile. Where can I get something? Three times. Think about the mess, Barry. - Fruits. - Fruits. President! President! President! Wait a minute. I think I'm smart. Things - I don't know. It makes it powerful, happy. Education for over 27 million years. President! President! President! - Who was the first in the world? - Leave a little light! President! President! President! Vanessa had flowers. We went to the car. Ready, man? I suggest you start this flower! Are you ready to go back? Turn on! Go ahead! Time! Which - flower. - Color set! Born in T-shirts. I mean, millions of great flowers and honey! nose failure. Go back to the area. Hull, Barry! You can worship. Shoot or swim or get the background and types of suffering? Choose your nose. Do not worry. Geroch Total Return! Only discovery. Section. Efforts have been made! Tell me now! Label and hat, cow! Well, Barry, you have! You taught me! Yes, no, yes! Barry works! You see big flowers? What color? Of course I have seen flowers! clever! Thank you, "but don't." Listen to it! This process was completed with the latest storm in the world. It's our last day. We are the only ones who love flowers and how long we live like the spirit, the soul we say, what we are talking about music or the traditional musical instrument that called us and holds Barry Unnamed: ... you win! Jock Bulls! Perfect. Just my husband. Well, where we are. Mom! Queues from! If you're in a conversation, it's true. I think we wake up at night! This is your chance. Get it! Oh, yes, is this next? Do you like it? bees. Don't forget milk, cream, cheese, me. I haven't seen this color! Sometimes I feel like meat! I do not know. Barry Sorry, is there time or help me to help? I'm late. Lawyer? I got a virus and blood. I needed a suitcase. Get it! Bars that are a big woman and I'm not embarrassed. No problem, nothing wrong. Leave them down. You're Messiah, Barry. I said yes, yes, isn't it? Okay, goIt's the first time in digital production! Usually ten. Everything, turn it off. I have nothing.
In addressing shortcomings of a major web browser
recently, I tossed out a neologism for a neologistic age: Minimum viable user.
This describes the lowest-skilled user a product might feasibly accommodate, or if you're business-minded, profitably
accommodate. The hazard being that such an MVU then drags down
the experience for others, and in particular expert or experienced users. More to follow.
cases where reasonable accommodations should be considered, absolutely. Though how this ought be done is also critical. And arbitrary exclusions for nonfunctional reasons -- the term for that is "discrimination", should you ask -- are right out.
Accessibility accommodations, in physical space and informational systems, is a key concern. I don't generally require these myself, but know many people who do, and have come to appreciate their concerns. I've also come to see both the increased imposition, and
benefits, this offers by way of accommodating the needs.
It's often underappreciated how increased accessibility helps many, often all, users of a product or space. A classic instance would be pavement (or sidewalk) kerb cuts -- bringing the edge of a walkway to street level, rather than leaving a 10 cm ridge. This accommodates not just wheelchairs, but dollies, carts, wheeled luggage, and more. Benefits which materialised only after deployment, beyond the original intent.
Accessibility and Information Systems
For information systems -- say, webpages -- the accommodations which are most useful for perceptually-challenged users are also
almost always beneficial to others: clear, high-contrast layouts. Lack of distracting screen elements. A highly semantic structure makes work easier for both screen-readers (text-to-speech) and
automated parsing or classification of content. Clear typography doesn't fix all copy, but it makes bad copy all the more apparent. Again, positive externalities.
When we get to the point of process-oriented systems, the picture blurs. The fundamental problem is that an interface which doesn't match the complexity of the underlying task is always going to be unsatisfactory. Larry Wall has observed this with regard to the Perl programming language: complexity will out. In landscape design, the problem is evidenced by the term "desire path
". A disagreement between use and design.
At its heart, a desire path is the failure for designer to correctly anticipate, or facilitate, the needs and desires of their users. Such paths reflect emergent practices or patterns, some constructive, some challenging the integrity of a system. Mastodon Tootstorms
are an example of a positive creative accommodation. Mostly.
On other services, the lack of an ability to otherwise dismiss content frequently creates an overload of the spam or abuse reporting mechanism. G+ comes to mind. If a side-effect of reporting content is that it is removed from my view, and there is no other way to accomplish that goal, then the reporting feature becomes the "remove from visibility" function. I've ... had that conversation with Google for a number of years. Or is that a monologue...
Software programming is in many ways a story of side-effects and desire paths, as is the art of crafting system exploits. PHP seems particularly prone to this, though I can't find the character-generating hack I've in mind.
There's the question of when a system should or shouldn't be particularly complex. Light switches and water taps are a case in point. The first has operated as a simple binary, the second as a variable-rate flow control, and the basic functionality has remained essentially unchanged for a century or more. Until the Internet of Broken Shit that Spies on you wizkids got ahold of them.... And modulo some simple management interfaces: timers or centralised large-building controls.
Simple tasks benefit from simple controls.
Complex tasks ... also
benefit from simple controls, but no simpler than the task at hand.
A good chef, for example, needs only a modicum of basic elements. A good knife. A reliable cooktop and oven. A sink. A cutting surface. Mixing bowls. Underappreciated: measuring equipment
. Measuring spoons, cups, pitchers. A scale. Thermometer. Timers. The chef also
may have call for some specific processing equipment: cutting, chopping, blending, grating, and mixing tools. Powering these increases throughput, but the essential controls remain simple. And some specialised tools, say, a frosting tube, but which generally share common characteristics: they're individually simple, do one thing, usually a basic transformation, and do it well.
The complexity of the process is in the chef, training, and practice.
The antithesis of this is "cooking gadgets" -- tools or appliances which are complicated, fussy, achieve a single and non-general
result, or which integrate (or attempt to do so) a full process. This is the stuff that clutters counter space and drawers: useless kitchen gadgets. A category so egregious it defies even simple listing, though you're welcome to dig through search results. If you can only use it on one recipe, it's bad mkay?
Appropriateness of Single-use Tools: Safety equipment
On single-use tools: if that single use is saving your life in conditions of readily forseeable peril
, then it may well be worth having. Lifeboats. Seatbelts. First aid kit.
That gets down to a risk assessment and mitigation calculation problem though, which may be error-prone: over- and under-estimating risks, and/or the efficacy of mitigations. Pricing risk and risk-as-economic good is another long topic.
Lifts, Telephones, and Automobiles
There are times when you absolutely should be aiming for the minimum viable user. Anything that sees widespread shared public use, for example. I shouldn't have to read the user manual to figure out how to open the front door to your building. Automatic, sensored doors, would be an entirely MVU product.
I've mentioned lifts, automobiles, and telephones. Each is highly complex conceptually, two can maim or kill. All can be relatively safely used by most adults, even children. A large part of what makes
lifts, automobiles, and telephones so generally usable is that the controls are very highly standardised. Mostly. The exceptions become newsworthy
Telephones have deviated from this with expansion of mobile and even more complex landline devices. And the specific case of business-oriented office telephones has been for at least 30 years, a strong counterexample, worth considering.
Office Phone Systems
It takes me a year or more to figure out a new office phone system. If ever. A constant for 30 years. This wasn't the case as of the 1980s, when a standard POTS-based phone might have five buttons, and the smarts were in a PBX generally located within the building.
By the 1990s, though, "smart phones" were starting to appear. Rolm was one early vendor I recall. These had an increasing mix of features, not standardised either across or within
vendor lines, but generally some mix of:
- Call forwarding
- Call conferencing
- Lots of other random shit to inflate marketing brochures
Feature #4 was a major problem, but the underlying one was, and remains, I think, the mismatch of comms channels and cognitive capacities a phone represents: audio, physical, textual, and short-term working memory.
The physical interface of most phones -- and I'm referring to desk sets here -- is highly constrained. There's a keypad, generally 12 buttons (not even enough for the impoverished Roman alphabet, let alone more robust ones), possibly an additional set of function buttons, and a handset, plus some base. Cords.
More advanced phonesets have perfected the technology of including a display for text which is simultaneously unreadable under any lighting conditions, viewing angles, or capable of providing useful information in any regard. This another engineering accomplishment with a decades-long record.
Phones are relatively good for talking
, but they are miserable for communication
. Reflected by millennials disdain for making phone calls
Millennials prefer text-based apps to voice comms, as do numerous tech early-adopters. I suspect the reason is both the state-maintenance and fragility of phone-based communications.
I'm distinguishing talking
-- a longer and wandering conversation with a friend -- and communicating
-- the attempt to convey or obtain some specific task-oriented or process-oriented information. The salient difference is that the latter is very strongly goal oriented
, the former, not so much. That is, a "simple" phone conversation is a complex interaction and translation between visual, textual, audio, physical, and memory systems. It's also
conducted without the visual cues of face-to-face communications (as are all remote comms), for further fun and games. This usually
makes conversations with someone you know well (for whom you can impute those cues) generally far more straightforward than with a stranger, especially for complex discussions.
The upshot is that while a telephone is reasonably simple to use in the basic case -- establish a voice connection with another device generally associated with a person or business -- it actually fails fairly profoundly in the surrounding task context
for numerous reasons. Many of which boil down to an interface which is simultaneously oversimplified and poorly suited to the task at hand.
Smartphones, and software-based telephony systems in general, followed the business phone lead.
Mobile comms generally have expanded on failures of business phone systems in poor usability as phones
by significantly deteriorating audio quality and dynamics -- constraints of packet-switching, compression, additional relay hops, and speed-of-light delays have boosted noise and lag to the level of interfering with the general flow of conversation. Which isn't particularly an interface failure as such (this is channel
behaviour), but it encourages the shift to text of millennials.
I'll save the question of how to fix
voice comms for discussion.
The point I'm making is that even an apparently straightforward device and task, with a long engineering history, can find itself ill-matched to new circumstances.
There's also much path-dependence here. Lauren Weinstein on G+ enjoys digging up old AT&T engineering and marketing and/or propaganda newsreels describing development of the phone system: direct-dial, switching, 7-digit, area-code, long-distance, touch-tone. There were real and legitimate design, engineering, and use considerations put into each of these. It's not as if the systems were haphazardly put together. This still doesn't avoid the net result being a bit of a hash.
An appreciation of why Mr. Chesterton built his fence
, and whether or not that rationale remains valid, is useful to keep in mind. As are path-dependencies, 2nd-system effects, and late-adopter advantages. Those building out interdependent networks after
initial trial often have a significant advantage.
It's also interesting to consider what the operating environment of earlier phones was -- because it exceeded the device itself.
A business-use phone of, say, the 1970s, existed in a loosely-integrated environment comprising:
- The user
- The phone itself
- A Rolodex
- The local PBX -- the business's dedicated internal phone switch.
- A secretary or switchboard operator, serving also as a message-taking (voice-to-text), screening, redirect, directory, interactive voice response, and/or calendaring service
- A desk calendar
- A phone book
- A diary or organiser
- Scratch paper
Critically: these components operated simultaneously and independently of the phone.
A modern business, software, or smartphone system may offer some, or even all, of these functions, but frequently:
- They aren't available whilst a call is in process
- They have vastly less capability or flexibility than the systems they replaced
The benefits are that they are generally cheaper, smaller, more portable, and create digital data which may
be, if accessible to other tools, more flexible.
But enough of phones.
The Unix Philosophy The Unix Philosophy
reads: "Write programs that do one thing and do it well. Write programs to work together. Write programs to handle text streams, because that is a universal interface."
It offers a tremendous amount of mileage.
Exceptions to the Unix Philosophy: Complexity Hubs
I want to talk about the apparent exceptions
to the Unix philosophy: shells, editors, email, init (and especially systemd), remote filesystems, udev, firewall rules, security generally, programming languages, GUIs.
Apparently, "exceptions to the Unix philosophy" is very nearly
another neologism -- I find a single result in Google, to an essay by Michael O. Church
. He adds two more items: IDEs (integrated developer environments), arguably an outgrowth of editors, and databases. Both are solid calls, and both tie directly into the theme I had in mind in the preceding toot.
These are all complexity hubs -- they are loci of either control or interfacing between and among other systems or complex domains:
- Shells, editors, IDEs, and programming languages are all interfaces through which a skilled user interacts with a highly complex system. Whilst remaining in the context of text, this is a space in which new capabilities are themselves created or synthesised.
- Databases ... try to make sense of the world, under constraints of scale, consistency, performance, reliability, stability, integrity, and durability.
- Email faces a vast array of complexities: standards, remote systems and operators, file formats, spam, security, identity, DNS, filtering. And that's just on the technical side.
Within the communications context there are composing standards, workflows, language, characterset, prioritisation, archival, deletion, and more.
Email is, in a word, a hairball. It wants an Alexander.
- To a rough approximation, remote filesystems combine many of the technical complexities of both databases and email: sorting out who and what to access, via what standards, in a distributed context. None of the widely-used technologies is particularly satisfactory, and none of the satisfactory systems are widely used.
It's a CRUDdy situation.
- Linux's udev is at its essence the problem of remote filesystems made local -- the idea that devices directly attached (or made to appear to be directly attached) to a system might go walkabout or show up unexpectedly for dinner.
It is "responsible for providing an abstract interface of the hardware", which tells us what we need to know: When "abstraction" appears in docs, it's a warning that Here Be Dragons.
Simplicity doesn't need abstraction.
- Firewall rules and security generally are attempted as defences against the unexpected. Worse, they're very frequently contingent defences, which is to say, when you need a defence, you need it now. As in military contexts, your basic tools are limited: speed and agility, if you can get out of the way, shielding or armour, if you cannot, countermeasures, if possible. Given a comms context, rules of epidemiology also apply: guard your portals, or ports, with effective friend-or-foe.
Since attacks, particularly effective ones, are frequently unexpected, security is inherently a choatic space, and reflects it. It is highly resistant to attempts at organisation, though the focus on mechanisms, above, may help.
The GUI Mess
This leaves us with GUIs, or more generally, the concept of the domain of graphics.
The complexity here is that graphics are not text
. Or at the very least, transcend
text. It is possible to use text to describe graphics
, and there are tools which do this: Turtle. Some CAD systems. Scalable vector graphics (SVG). But to get philosophical: the description
is not the thing
. The end result is visual, and whilst it might be rule-derived, it transcends the rule itself.
One argument is that when you leave the domain of text, you leave the Unix philosophy behind. I think I'm OK with that as a starting premise. This means that visual, audio, mechanical, and other sensory outputs are fundamentally different from text, and that we need to keep in mind that text, whilst powerful, has its limits.
It's also to keep in mind, though, what the characteristics and limits of GUIs themselves are.
Neal Stephenson, "In the Beginning was the Command Line
", again, offers one such: Metaphor sheer. Most especially where a GUI is used to represent computer system elements themselves, it's crucial to realise that the representation
is not the thing itself
-- map-territory confusion. In fact a GUI isn't so much a representation
as a remapping
of computer state.
Unix, the C programming language, and the bash shell all remain relatively
close to machine state. In many cases, the basic Unix commands are wrappers around either C language structures (e.g., printf(1) and printf(3)), or report the content of basic data structures (e.g., stat(1) and stat(2)). Even where the concept is reshaped significantly, you can still generally find the underlying concept present. This may be more foreign for newbies, but as exposure to the system is gained, interface knowledge leverages to system knowledge.
GUIs lose this: represented state has little coherence.
Some argue that not being tied to the mechanism is an advantage -- that this allows the interface designer
a freedom to explore expressions independent of the underlying mechanism
This is true.
But it gets to another set of limitations of GUIs:
- There is a limit to how much information can be represented graphically, imposed by display, resolution, dot pitch, scrolling, seeking, and time.
- Users hate change.
- GUI efficiency is intrinsically limited.
- GUI doesn't script. Not easily. And most definitely not within the metaphor of basic GUI use, which is how CLI scripts.
Scripting has the effect of constraining, for better or worse, changes to interfaces because scripts have to be updated as features change
. The consequence is that tools either don't change arguments, change them with exceedingly long advance warning, or failing either of those, are rapidly discarded by those who use them due to gratuitous interface changes. The result is a strong, occasionally stifling, consistency over time.
The limits on information density and on scaling or scrolling are another factor. A good
GUI might offer the ability to expand or compress a view by a few times
, but it takes a very creative approach to convey the orders of magnitude
scales which, say, a physical library does. Data visualisation is its own specialty, and some are good at it.
The result is that most GUI interfaces are good for a dozen, perhaps a few dozens, objects.
Exceptions to this are telling. xkcd is on the money
This chart manages to show values from $1to $2.39 quadrillion ($2.39 thousand million million), within the same visualisation, a span of 15 orders of magnitude, by using a form of logarithmic scaling. This is possible
, but it is difficult to do usefully or elegantly.
GUIs, Efficiency, and Change
Change aversion and inherent limits to GUI productivity interact to create the final conflict for GUIs: the potential for interface efficiency is limited and
change is disruptive, you lose for trying. Jamie "jwz" Zawinski notes this
Look, in the case of all other software, I believe strongly in "release early, release often". Hell, I damned near invented it. But I think history has proven that UI is different than software.
What jwz doesn't do is explain why
this is, and I'm not aware of others who have.
This also shows up in the case of Apple, a company which puts a premium on design and UI, but which is exceedingly
conservative in changing
UI. The original Mac desktop stuck with its initial motif from 1984 until 2001: 17 years. It successor has changed only incrementally from 2001 to 2017, very nearly as long. Even Apple realise: you don't fuck with the GUI.
This suggests an underlying failure of the Linux desktop effort isn't a failure
to innovate, but rather far too much churn in the desktop
My daily driver for 20 years has been Window Maker
, itself a reimplementation of the 1989 NeXT desktop. Which is to say that a 30 year-old design works admirably. It's fast, stable, doesn't change unexpectedly with new releases or updates, and gets the fuck out of the way. It has a few customisations which tend to focus on function
rather than form
The Minimum Viable User GUI and Its Costs
Back to my starting premise: let's assume, with good reason, that the Minimum Viable User wants and needs
a simple, largely pushbutton, heavily GUI, systems interface.
What does this cost us?
The answer is in the list of Unix Philosophy Violating Tasks:
- Dealing with scale
- Dealing with complexity
- Iteratively building out tools and systems
- Rapid response
- Adapting to changing circumstance
- Considered thought
- Scalability of understanding, comprehension, or control
- Integrating numerous other systems
- Especially nonuniform ones
Just Who is the Minimum Viable User?
A central question, and somewhat inexcusably buried at this point in my essay, is who is
the Minimum Viable User? This could be the lowest level of system skills capable of using a device, which an OECD survey finds is abysmally bad
. Over half the population, and over 2/3 in most surveyed industrialised
countries, have poor, "below poor", or no computer skills at all
I'm moving past this point quickly, but recommend very strongly reading Jacob Nielsen's commentary on this study, and the study itself: "Skills Matter: Further Results from the Survey of Adult Skills
" (OECD, 2016). The state of typical user skills is exceedingly poor. If you're reading this essay, you're quite likely not among them, though if you are, the comment is simply meant without disparagement as a statement of fact: from high to low, the range of user computer skills is enormous, with the low end of the range very highly represented in the general population. People who, largely, otherwise function quite well in society: they have jobs, responsibilities, families.
This has profound implications for futures premised on any sort of general technical literacy. As William Ophuls writes in Plato's Revenge
, social systems based on the premise that all the children are above average are doomed to failure.
The main thrust of this essay though is a different concern. Global information systems which are premised on a minimal-or-worse level of sophistication by all users also bodes poorly, though for different reasons: it hampers the capabilities of that small fraction -- 5-8% or less, and yes, quite probably far less -- of the population who can make highly productive use of such tools, by producing hardware and software which fails to support advanced usage.
It does this by two general modes:
- It simply lacks the necessary features. I could point to the entirely crippled commandline userland of a typical Android device.
- It actively prevents advanced users from making full use of their devices by restricting access and enhancement. This might be seen as a patronising or Big Brotherish move by vendors, and there's certainly concern over this. But it's also a realistic response to the security and threat landscape of mobile devices operate in, given typical user skill levels. A fact hammered home by the fact that skilled users frequently fail to manage their systems securely.
The dynamics are also driven by market and business considerations -- where the money is, and how development, shipping, and maintaining devices relates to cash flows.
The Problem-Problem Problem
One business response is to extend the MVU definition to that of the Minimum Viable-Revenue
User: services are targeted at those with the discretionary income, or lack of alternatives, to prove attractive to vendors.
There's been well-founded criticism of Silicon Valley startups which have lost track of what a meaningful problem in need of solution. It's a problem problem. Or: The problem-problem problem
Solving Minor Irritations of Rich People, or better, inventing
MIoRP, as a bootstrapping method, has some arguable utility. Telsa Motors created a fun, but Very ExpensiveTM
, electrified Lotus on its way to creating a viable, practical, battery-powered, Everyman vehicle. Elon Musk is a man who has made me a liar multiple times, by doing what I unequivocally stated was impossible, and he impresses the hell out of me for it.
Amazon reinvented Sears, Roebuck, & Co. for the 21st
century bootstrapped off a books-by-mail business.
I'm not saying there ain't a there there. But I'm extremely unconvinced that all the there there that's claimed to be there is really there.
Swapping out the phone or fax in a laundry, food-delivery, dog-walking, or house-cleaning business is not, in the larger scheme of things, particularly disruptive. It's often not even a particularly good business when catering to the Rich and Foolish. Not that parting same from their easily-won dollars isn't perhaps a laudable venture.
The other slant of the Minimum Viable User is the one who is pushed so far up against the wall, or fenced in and the competition fenced out, that they've no option but to use your service. Until such time as you decide to drag them off the plane
. Captive-market vendor-customer relationship dynamics are typically poor.
For numerous reasons, the design considerations which go into such tools are also rarely generative. Oh: Advertising is one of those domains. Remember: Advertising breeds contempt
Each of these MVU business cases argues against
designing for the generative user. A rather common failing of market-based capitalism. Robert Nozick explains criticism of same by creatives
by the fact that "by and large, a capitalist society does not honor its intellectuals". A curious argument whose counterpoint is "capitalism is favoured by those whom it does unduly reward".
Pointing this out is useful on a number of counts. It provides a ready response to the Bullshit Argument that "the market decides". Because what becomes clear is that market forces alone
are not going to do much to encourage generative-use designs. Particularly not in a world of zero-marginal-cost products. That is: products whose marginal
costs are small (and hence: pricing leverage), but with high fixed costs. And that means that the market is going to deliver a bunch of shitty tools
Getting from Zero to One for Generative Mobile Platforms
Which suggests one of a few possible avenues out of the dilemma: a large set of generative tools have been built through non-capitalistic organisation. The Free Software / Open Source world would be a prime case in point, but it's hardly the first. Scientific research and collaboration, assembly of reference tools, dictionaries, encyclopedias. That's an option.
Though they need some sort of base around which to form and organise. And in the case of software
they need hardware
For all the evil Bill Gates unleashed upon the tech world (a fair bit of it related to the MVU and MFVU concepts themselves), he also unleashed a world of i386 chipset systems on which other software systems could be developed. Saw to it that he individually and specifically profited from every one sold, mind. But he wasn't able to restrict what ran on those boxes post-delivery.
GNU/Linux may well have needed Bill Gates. (And Gates may well have not been able to avoided creating Linux.)
There are more smartphones and Android devices today than there ever were PCs, but one area of technical advance over the decades has been in locking systems down. Hard. And, well, that's a problem.
I don't think it's the only one, though.
Commodity x86 hardware had a model for the operating system capable of utilising it which already existed: Unix. Linus Torvalds may have created
Linux, but he didn't design
it as such. That template had been cut already. It was a one-to-two problem, a question of scaling out
. Which is to say it wasn't
a Zero to One problem
And yes, Peter Thiel is an evil asshat, which is why I'm pointing you specifically at where to steal his book. That's not to say he isn't an evil asshat without the occasional good idea.
I'm not sure that finding (and building) the Open Mobile Device Environment is a Zero to One problem -- Google, well, Android Inc., leveraged Linux, after all. But the design constraints are significantly different.
A standalone PC workstation is much closer to a multi-user Unix server in most regards, and particularly regards UI/UX, than is a mobile device measuring 25, or 20, or 12, or 8 cm. Or without any keyboard. Or screen. And a certain set of tools and utilities must be created.
It's not as if attempts haven't been made, but they simply keep not getting
anywhere. Maemo. FirefoxOS. Ubuntu Phone. Hell, the Psion and Palm devices weren't bad for what they did.
Pick one, guys & gals. Please.
The Mobile Applications Ecosystem is Broken There's also the question of apps, and app space, itself
. By one school of thought, a large count of available applications is a good thing. By another, it's a sign of failure of convergence. As of 2017, there are 2.5 million Google Play apps
Is it even worth the search time? Is meaningful search of the space even possible?
The question occurs: is it really in Google's interest to proliferate applications which are separate, non-integrated, split development efforts, and often simply perform tasks poorly? Why not find a way to focus that development effort to producing some truly, insanely, great apps?
The consequences are strongly reminiscent of the spyware and adware problem of desktop Windows in the early 2000s. For the same reason: competitive software development incentivises bad behaviour and poor functionality. It's the Barbarians at the Gate all over again
. With so many
independent development efforts, and such an inefficient communications channel to potential users, as well as poor revenue potential through kosher methods, the system is inherently incentivised to exceedingly user-hostile behaviour.
A valid counterargument would be to point to a set of readily-found, excellent, well-designed, well-behaved, user-centric tools fulfilling fundamental uses mentioned in my G+ post. But this isn't the case. Google's Play Store is an abject failure from a user perspective. And catering to the MVU carries a large share of the blame.
I'm not saying there should be only one
of any given application either -- some
choice is of value. Most Linux distributions will in fact offer a number of options for given functionality, both as shell or programming tools (where modular design frequently makes these drop-in replacements, down to syntax), and as GUI tools.
Whilst "freedom to fork" is a touted advantage of free software, "capacity to merge" is even more salient. Different design paths may be taken, then rejoined.
There's another line of argument about web-based interfaces. I'll skip much of that noting that the issues parallel much of the current discussion. And that the ability to use alternate app interfaces or browser site extensions is critical. Reddit and Reddit User Suite, by Andy Tuba, are prime exemplars of excellence in this regard.
Related Reading A compilation of articles reflecting this trend.
- Google Exec Says Windows 10 S Validates Chrome OS Design Philosophy:
Google VP Prabhakar Raghava said in a recent interview that the very existence of Windows 10 S is “a validation of the approach we've taken.” Raghava went on to add, “What educational institutions have demanded is simplicity. It's a real test tube for all of us, whether it's Microsoft or any of us.”... [It] is only able to install and run Universal Windows Platform (UWP) apps that are found within the Windows Store. Microsoft has locked things down so tightly that Win32 apps won’t even install....
Bootnote Yes, this is a lot of words to describe the concept generally cast as "the lowest common denominator". I'm not claiming conceptual originality, but terminological originality. Additionally:
This post was adapted from an earlier Mastodon Tootstorm.
- "Lowest common denominator" is technically inaccurate. It's greatest common denominator, but that creates a confusion as to whether what's being discussed is a high goal to be attained or a low limit which is imposed. (The LCD of any two integers is 1.)
- "Minimum viable user" plays off "minimum viable product", popular extant Silicon Valley terminology. And is technically accurate.
- Reddit fans of the concept might care to visit /DesirePaths.
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